Legumes such as peas and beans are good to plant with other crops because of its ability to provide nitrogen. Nodules on the roots of legumes convert regular nitrogen into something that can be absorbed by plants. Legumes also tend to have deep root system which also helps aerate the soil.
Shapes can also be a determining factor for companion planting. Plant shape can obscure some plants and keep it away from insects. Some herbs have a strong smell and have certain secretions that are natural insect repellents and can confuse many other pests.
Some root systems of plants secrete chemicals that can promote the growth of other plants or can help with seed germination.
It can seem complicated. Don’t let that put you off…studies have proven that companion planting is beneficial. While it is not guaranteed to prevent insect and pest infestation completely, it can reduce the likelihood.
Another means of controlling pests is planting in scattered groupings. The theory behind this being it’s harder for insects to find what they want and if they do, it will only be a couple of plants munched on, not a whole straight row of them.
So now, you must be asking yourself what plants go together. Below is a companion planting chart or a list of good and bad pairings: